2. Members undertake to work towards the development of internationally agreed disciplines to regulate the availability of export credits, export credit guarantees or insurance programmes, and to grant export credits, export credit guarantees or insurance programmes only in accordance with these disciplines, after agreement on these disciplines. Measures in this category include expenditures (or spending abandonments) for programs that provide services or benefits to agriculture or the rural community. They must not include direct payments to producers or processors. Such programmes, which include the following list but are not limited to the following list, must meet the general criteria set out in paragraph 1 and the following specific conditions: in the 1980s, public payments to agricultural producers in industrialized countries generated large crop surpluses, which were discharged by export subsidies on the world market , which has led to lower food prices. Tax pressure on safeguards has increased, due to both lower import duty revenues and increased domestic spending. Meanwhile, the global economy has entered a cycle of recession and the perception that market opening could improve economic conditions has led to calls for a new round of multilateral trade negotiations. [2] The cycle would open up markets for high-tech services and goods and ultimately generate much-needed efficiency gains. To engage developing countries, many of which were new international disciplines, agriculture, textiles and clothing were added to the big deal. [1] The Haberler Report of 1958 stressed the importance of minimizing the impact of agricultural subsidies on competitiveness and recommended replacing price support with additional non-production-related direct payments and expected discussions to be under way on green box subsidies. But it is only recently that this change has become the heart of the reform of the global agricultural system. [1] d) these products are marked with the symbol ST 5 in section I-B of part I of the protocol of a Member State attached to the Marrakech Protocol, as they are subject to special treatment that supports non-commercial factors of interest, such as food security and environmental protection; Agricultural lobbies in industrialized countries vehemently opposed agricultural trade-offs ahead of the 1986 GATT Ministerial Conference in Punta del Este, Uruguay. In this context, the idea of excluding “trade-neutral” production and subsidies from WTO commitments was first proposed in 1987 by the United States and soon replicated by the EU.

[2] By guaranteeing continued support to farmers, it has also neutralized the opposition. In exchange for the integration of agriculture into WTO disciplines and the obligation to reduce trade-distorting subsidies in the future, developed countries could maintain subsidies that result in “no more than minimal trade distortion” in order to achieve different public policy objectives. [1] Export subsidies are the third pillar. The 1995 agricultural agreement required industrialized countries to reduce export subsidies by at least 36% (in value terms) or by 21% (by volume) over a six-year value. For developing countries, the agreement called for reductions of 24% (in value) and 14% (in volume) over ten years. (b) the impact of reduction commitments on world agriculture trade; The agreement has been criticized by civil society groups for reducing customs protection for small farmers, an important source of income in developing countries, while allowing rich countries to continue subsidizing agriculture in their own countries. (a) the eligibility of these payments is determined by a loss of income that takes into account only farm incomes greater than 30% of average gross income or equivalent in net income (excluding payments made under the same plans or loan plans